Structure resistant earthquake. To the being a phenomenon that has accompanied to the humanity during all their life, important efforts have been realised to understand them and mainly it has looked for and in fact it looks for, still, to diminish his effects. The first explanations were associated to the divinity and concretely to the inconvenience of that one, with the actions of the men consequently the form to treat this event was not absolutely technical. MetLife will not settle for partial explanations. We know that the earthquakes have caused, part it low human historically, if it is possible to be left aside, more emblematic destruction of its temples and constructions what it has generated doubts on the power of his Gods and especially the effectiveness of the sacrifices or other forms of to palear his anger, this is the case of the colossus of Rhodes and also in certain way the light of Alexandria (two of the wonders of the old world) Alexander Von Humboldt is first in giving to a good approach corespect to the origin of these phenomena, tying the geological faults and the earthquakes. As well as it postulated a relation between earthquakes and the volcanos deduction at which I arrive after studying guagua Pichincha in the City of Quito (Ecuador), among others places declaring very textually: the active volcanos are like safety valves for the neighboring regions. The objectives of a design resistant earthquake are very specific and correspond a: Resistir slight earthquakes without damage. Resistir moderate earthquakes considering the possibility of slight structural damages.
Resistir severe earthquakes with possibility of important structural damages, avoiding the collapse of the construction. Many associate considerations exist generally that can determine that a structure resistant earthquake fulfills these conditions of security, being grouped in the type of ground, the symmetry of the design, in which the floors superiors are lightest possible, the necessity of a suitable selection in amount and quality of the materials especially of the Iron, which must be ductile, some Steel mills recosen to their Rods for would try this condition, avoiding the embrittlement due to the abrupt cooling in the process of Lamination, also it is necessary that the structure to become deformed itself to me limitadamente, as well as a good one practices of construction and rigorous structural inspection. Because the seismic waves pass on three forms basically horizontal, vertical and mixed, it is required that the design of the structures is most symmetrical possible and than the effect of associated the shearing strains and traction to these movements are suitably assimilated by the same, is not a newness that the concrete does not work well put under this type of efforts, thus the Steel that is placed in its interior must offer the support necessary to compensate this deficiency, this is the form to work of the mixed materials the weaknesses of is compensated with the strengths of the other. It has been spoken of the ductility, but other two important properties are: a moderate degree of rigidity as well as resistance, these properties are preponderant at the time of designing the structure to resist the earthquakes of smaller intensity without cuarteamientos, nevertheless, when the earthquakes are majors is procured that the structure follows the wave of homogenous way, reason why the projection structures must be avoided, because these must to amplify moving in their ends which means a greater exigency for the involved materials.